Psittacosis parrots dangerous to humans!
In 2015, Tver oblast in the study of biological material from a parrot belonging to one of the Tver businessmen was discovered the genetic material of the causative agent of psittacosis, in the city of Rostov-on-don registered a case of psittacosis at the young man who bought a parrot with it.
In 2012-2013 in Taganrog, Rostov and Bataisk registered several human cases of dangerous disease from budgies and Canaries. According to the Moscow veterinary centre “ZOOVET”, psittacosis infected from 30 to 80 percent of crows and pigeons.
The disease has several names: psittacosis, psittacosis, chlamydiosis, of birds, contagious pneumonia, pneumatig. This contagious disease of wild and farm birds, mammals and humans occurs in the form of inflammation of the respiratory organs. The name of the disease “psittacosis” is derived from the Greek. Psittakos, “the parrot”. Eventually it was determined that the source of infection may be many other kinds of birds, so in 1942 K. F. Mayer suggested the name “psittacosis” from GK. Ornithos — “bird”.
A particular danger for man is caring for a sick bird, in addition, contamination can occur during slaughter and butchering carcasses. The largest epidemiological significance have Pets birds — osobennosti and Turkey; indoor birds — parrots, wavy parrots, Canaries; urban pigeons.
The causative agent of psittacosis — intracellular parasite -Chlamydophila psittaci. It is a bacterium. The microorganism is stored for a long time in the environment: in the litter of birds and in their nests — up to 4 months, in tap water — 2-3 weeks at room temperature and 37°C to 2 days at 4-6 °C for 7 days at -20… -30°C up to 10 months at -70°C remains viable for 2 years, is destroyed by boiling for 3-5 min, when heated to 80°C in 10-15 min.
Inactivating effect disinfectants physical and chemical ultra-violet rays, ether, formaldehyde, 0.5% phenol, 2% Lysol, 0.1% potassium Iodate, 0.5% potassium permanganate 6% solution of hydrogen peroxide — destroys the pathogen in 2 days; within 10 minutes, the pathogen dies under the action of 0.5% solution of chlorine bleach and 2% solution of chlorine bleach destroys the pathogen within minutes.
Chlamydophila — absolute zoonosis, i.e. an infection is transmitted to humans only from birds. The route of transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci — airborne and airborne dust. Infection occurs by inhalation of air containing the dried excreta of sick birds, particles of fluff, contaminated with their secretions, and nasal secretions. Provoke disease stress factors: poor nutrition and hygiene, overcrowding, bacterial or protozoal diseases, transportation, hypothermia, breeding or moulting.
Ill with psittacosis bird is not immune to re-infection. This is due to the fact that Chlamydophila psittaci, lives within the cells of its host, so it does not stimulate high production of antibodies.
The incubation period ranges from 3 days to several weeks. Parrot disease is observed in asymptomatic, acute and chronic. Clinical signs maloharakterny and are common to all other diseases: lack of appetite, drowsiness, weakness, profuse diarrhea, leading to wasting and death. Primarily affects the respiratory and digestive systems (including liver), then the cardiovascular system, spleen and eyes (bilateral conjunctivitis occurs). Eye inflammation starts with an acute Qatar with intense lacrimation. A day develops sero-mucous or Muco-purulent inflammation with adhesive effusions. Marked agglutination of the eyelids. Sometimes develop signs of uveitis — the so-called “glass eye”. The bird blind. And often this process is developed on the one hand, although in the long course in the pathological process involved and the other eye. The symptoms of psittacosis is similar to the expression of other diseases, such as intestinal lesions enterobacteriales etiology, eimeriosis, mycoplasmosis, -, dipteronia forms of pox, trichomoniasis and food poisoning. The treatment may be appointed only on the basis of diagnosis.
Material for studies on the psittacosis are: — in the case of intravital diagnosis: bird droppings, drag swabs of the mucous membranes (conjunctiva, sinus, cloaca), scraping (swab) from goiter, serum. One litter analysis may not be accurate, it is better to conduct a comprehensive examination. — in case of postmortem diagnosis: parenchymatous organs of birds. Information about the diagnosis of psittacosis can be obtained in the Rostov regional veterinary laboratory by phone (863) 2-32-56-60.
Given the risk of human infection, when sending the pathologic material to a lab for research it is necessary to observe safety precautions. The dead birds are wrapped in several layers of fabric soaked in 5%-s ‘ solution of Lysol (phenol, 20% alkali).
For the treatment often used tetracycline antibiotics: vibramycin, doxycycline, tetracycline. In a cage (aviary) should always be sources of calcium, since tetracycline binds with this mineral which can lead to deficiency of calcium. After the treatment it is necessary to control psittacosis in mixed samples of faeces PCR in a week, month and three months after antibiotic therapy. Treatment of psittacosis — it’s not always effective, as a rule, long, not excluding recurrences and dangerous infection for man. It is very important to prevent the spread of psittacosis in a flock. Should be taken precautions to protect persons serving the birds. Rules recommended the following:
Isolate newly acquired birds for a period of from thirty to forty-five days.
To check and isolate suspect birds (ruffled, with liquid droppings, weight loss, or respiratory diseases).
Thoroughly clean and disinfect cages, surroundings, and equipment used for sick birds.
To wear masks and gloves while cleaning the cages to prevent infection.
To curb the circulation of feather dust to a minimum.
Droppings from an infected bird should be soaked in disinfectant and placed in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.
The contact of humans with infected birds should be kept to a minimum.
To date, commercial vaccines for prevention of psittacosis does not exist. Hence the importance of veterinary-sanitary measures to prevent introduction of the pathogen.